Recently on TV, the idea was posed to people in the street, the prospect of living to a hundred or more. Some liked the idea, others were mortified by the prospect. But what if you could do that and remain looking younger, feeling and being healthy well into your 90's, what would you think about that . . . .
The truth is, with the advancements being made in medical science and AI, living beyond 100 and being very healthy really is a possibility and most likely a probability too! Within maybe the next 20 years, organ donation will be a thing of the past, they'll be growing organs from your own stem cells, meaning they are your own organs, no more waiting for someone to die and no more rejection medication. There there is the advances in nanotechnology, AI devices and gene editing, so the prospect of some happy times ahead? But there will be some challenges to go with that, e.g. an ever-growing population, maybe 9 or ten billion by the end of the 22nd century, global warming and feeding that huge population and, no doubt, declining jobs with the rise of AI. Maybe you'll have a very long and happy retirement; who knows?
However, that is most likely all going to happen beyond my lifetime and not in enough time to make NOW a better place to live and to help you learn to thrive and have a good and happy life; NOW! So, fortunately, hypnotherapy will continue to help us live a more happy and productive life today and will definitely make you feel more alive. Simply speaking, the more happy and relaxed you are; the slower you will age. When you discover the way to manage your mind and life, the world, for the most part, becomes an infinitely better place to live in. To find out more about how you can do this, see the links below!
Hypnotherapy stands out as one of the most effective strategic life management methods there is, especially in its ability to promote clear thinking and good states of mental wellness. The behaviours that make life challenging are often a result of too much stress, too little sleep and too little by way of clarity! So, to take back control of your mind and your life, it makes perfect sense to use a methodology that addresses the subconscious mind's role in perpetuating negative, vague and ambiguous states of mind. Hypnosis helps us to create calm relaxing states of mind that make life work better! If you would like to address any concerns you have in this direction, or, if you just want to make your life feel better, then why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation? Hypnosis gives you the ability to have a good life!
The objective here is to help people understand how and why we become illogically trapped into irrational emotional experiences that may actually be happening for reasons different to that which we would imagine! If you want to know more about how Hypnotherapy can help you; why not make an appointment for a Free Consultation?
A team of researchers at Baylor College of Medicine, the Texas Heart Institute and Texas Children's Hospital have developed a powerful new approach to understand the formation of new neurons in the mammalian adult brain. Published in the journal Cell Reports, this work opens exciting new pathways that can be further developed to repair malfunctioning brain circuits.
"The mammalian brain is a complex tissue composed of diverse cell types. However, despite rapid advances in the field of neuroscience, only a limited number of cell types in the brain are known and well-characterised," said lead author Dr. Benjamin Arenkiel, associate professor of molecular and human genetics and neuroscience at Baylor College of Medicine and investigator at the Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute at Texas Children's Hospital. "Identifying all cellular subtypes is crucial to unravelling how brain circuits function and will yield insights into brain activity under diseased and injured conditions."
In this study, Arenkiel and his colleagues described an innovative approach that identified novel cellular targets and genetic pathways involved in the wiring of adult-born neurons into existing brain circuits.
Researchers now know that the brain is not just composed of four or five cell types performing generic roles. Most circuits consist of unique subtypes of cells, many of which currently are uncharacterised, explained Arenkiel. For instance, there are possibly thousands of functional subtypes within a particular class of neurons.
"Therefore, the first task to begin understanding brain circuits is to identify all the cellular players," said Arenkiel, who also is a McNair scholar at Baylor College of Medicine. "This would allow us to genetically probe them to reveal their biological functions, a necessary knowledge to fix these circuits when something goes wrong."
In most adult mammals, only two regions of the brain, the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb (OB), have been shown to integrate new neurons into existing brain circuits. Arenkiel joined forces with co-corresponding author Dr James Martin, professor and Vivian L. Smith Chair in Regenerative Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and director of the Cardiomyocyte Renewal Laboratory at Texas Heart Institute. The team applied a relatively new technology, single-cell RNA sequencing, to identify novel cellular subtypes in the OB.
To perform single-cell RNA sequencing, Burak Tepe, a graduate student in the Arenkiel lab and one of the primary authors of this paper, and colleagues prepared a single-cell suspension by disassociating brain tissue using enzymes. This mixture was sorted in a microfluidic chamber in which every cell was co-encapsulated in micro-particles (beads) with unique barcodes that kept track of the cellular origin of each mRNA transcript.
Using this profiling strategy, they painstakingly generated a library of mRNA transcripts for 50,000 cells in the OB. This information revealed that the OB comprises approximately 30 different cell types that included 18 different types of neurons, as well as many other non-neuronal cells such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, vascular and immune cells.
Additionally, the team uncovered genes and/or pathways that are chronologically turned "on" or "off" in these lineages during brain development. This study leverages the combined power of single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of adult-born neurons with bioinformatics to compare how gene expression profiles from different neuronal lineages progress over time.
This powerful method has allowed the researchers to recreate a putative developmental trajectory ("pseudo-timeline") of all the neuronal lineages in the OB -- from migrating neural progenitors to fully functioning mature neurons -- along with detailed information of when and where specific genes or genetic networks are turned 'on' or 'off.' Consistent with this, the researchers found specific subtypes of neurons were differentially enriched or depleted in response to distinct sensory cues.
"In addition to identifying key players and providing crucial mechanistic insights into adult neurogenesis in OB, we think this study has a broader impact because other researchers can now use this approach to identify and tease out the function of new neuronal circuits in other parts of the adult mammalian brain," Arenkiel said.
Other contributors to this work include Matthew Hill, Brandon Pekarek, Patrick J. Hunt, Thomas Martin and James Martin. The authors are affiliated with one or more of the following institutions: Baylor College of Medicine, the Texas Heart Institute, and the Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute at Texas Children's Hospital.
This work was primarily supported by funding from National Institutes of Health, Klingstein-Simons fellowship, McNair Foundation and the NRSA grant F31NS089411.
Materials provided by Baylor College of Medicine. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
- Burak Tepe, Matthew C. Hill, Brandon T. Pekarek, Patrick J. Hunt, Thomas J. Martin, James F. Martin, Benjamin R. Arenkiel. Single-Cell RNA-Seq of Mouse Olfactory Bulb Reveals Cellular Heterogeneity and Activity-Dependent Molecular Census of Adult-Born Neurons. Cell Reports, 2018; 25 (10): 2689 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.034
Cite This Page:
Baylor College of Medicine. "Novel approach improves understanding of the formation of new neurons in the mammalian adult brain." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 December 2018. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/12/181204131049.htm>.